About Hepatitis

Presented By Marler Clark The nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Hepatitis and other foodborne illness outbreaks.


1.  Bialek, Stephanie, et al., “Hepatitis A Incidence and Hepatitis A Vaccination among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990–2001,” American Journal of Public Health.  Vol. 94, No. 6, pp. 996-1001 (2004). Full text of article is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448379/pdf/0940996.pdf

2.  Bownds, Lynne, et al., “Economic Impact of a Hepatitis A Epidemic in a Mid-Sized Urban Community: The Case of Spokane, Washington,” Journal of Community Health, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 233-246 (2003). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12856793

3.  Butot S, et al., “Effects of Sanitation, Freezing and Frozen Storage on Enteric Viruses in Berries and Herbs,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 126, pp. 30-35 (2008).  Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18547667

4.  Calder, L, et al., “An Outbreak of Hepatitis A Associated with Consumption of Raw Blueberries,” Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 131, No. 1, 745-751 (2003) at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2870016/pdf/12948375.pdf

5.  CDC Summary, “Disease Burden from Viral Hepatitis A, B, and C in the United States, 2004-2009, at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/pdfs/disease_burden.pdf

6.  CDC, “Surveillance for Acute Viral Hepatitis—- United States, 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 58, No. SS03 (May 22, 2009) at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5803a1.htm

7.  CDC, “Hepatitis A,” in EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASES (also known as “The Pink Book”), Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, editors, 12th edition. Chapter available online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/hepa.html

8.  CDC, “Updated recommendations from Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of hepatitis A vaccine in close contacts of newly arriving international adoptees,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 58, No. 36, (Sept. 18, 2009), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5836a4.htm

9.  CDC, “Update: Prevention of Hepatitis A after Exposure to Hepatitis A Virus and in International Travelers, Updated ACIP Recommendations, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 56, No. 41, pp. 1080-84 (Oct. 19, 2007), online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5641a3.htm.

10.  Detry, Oliver, et al., “Brain Edema and Intracranial Hypertension in Fulminant Hepatic Failure:  Pathophysiology and Management,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 12, No. 46, pp. 7405-7412 (Dec. 14, 2006). Full article is available online at http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/12/7405.pdf

11.  Feinstone, Stephen and Gust, Ian, “Hepatitis A Virus,” in Mandell, Douglas, & Bennett’s PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Fifth Edition, Chap. 161, pp. 1920-40 (2000).

12.  Fiore, Anthony, Division of Viral Hepatitis, CDC, “Hepatitis A Transmitted by Food,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 38, 705-715 (March 1, 2004). Full text online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/PDFs/fiore_ha_transmitted_by_food.pdf

13.  Fiore, Anthony, et al., Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), Prevention of Hepatitis-A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Review, Vol. 55, Report 407, (May 19, 2006) at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5507a1.htm

14.  Gilkson Miryam, et al., “Relapsing Hepatitis A. Review of 14 cases and literature survey,”  Medicine, Vol. 71, No. 1, 14-23 ( Jan. 1992). Abstract of article online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1312659

15.  Hutin YJF, et al., “A Multistate, Foodborne Outbreak of Hepatitis A,” New England Journal of Medincine, Vol. 340, pp. 595–602 (1999). Full text of article is online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199902253400802

16.  Jaykus Lee Ann, “Epidemiology and Detection as Options for Control of Viral and Parasitic Foodborne Disease,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 529-39 (October-December 1997). Full text of the article is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640072/pdf/9366607.pdf

17.  Mayo Clinic Staff, “Hepatitis A,” (last updated Sept. 1, 2011). Articles available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-a/DS00397.

18.  Piazza, M, et al., “Safety and Immunogenicity of Hepatitis A Vaccine in Infants: A Candidate for Inclusion in Childhood Vaccination Program,” Vaccine. Vol. 17, pp. 585-588 (1999). Abstract at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075165

19.  Rawls, R.A. and Vega, K.J., “Viral Hepatitis in Minority America,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 144–151 (Feb. 2005). Abstract is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681912

20.  Sagliocca, Luciano, et al., “Efficacy of Hepatitis A Vaccine in Prevention of Secondary Hepatitis A Infection: A Randomized Trial,” Lancet, Vol. 353, 1136-39 (1999). Abstract at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(98)08139-2/abstract

21.  Scharff, RL, et al., “Economic Cost of Foodborne Illness in Ohio,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 128-136 (2009).  Abstract available online at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/2009/00000072/00000001/art00018

22.  Schiff, E.R., “Atypical Manifestations of hepatitis-A,” Vaccine, Vol. 10, Suppl. 1, pp. 18-20 (1992). Abstract at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475999

23.  Taylor, Ryan, et al., “Fulminant Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the United States: Incidence, Prognosis, and Outcomes,” Hepatology, Vol. 44, 1589-1597 (2006). Full text http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/55879/1/21439_ftp.pdf

24.  Todd, Ewan C. D., et al., “Outbreaks Where Food Workers Have Been Implicated in the Spread of Foodborne Disease. Part 6. Transmission and Survival of Pathogens in the Food Processing and Preparation-environment,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 72, 202-219 (2009). Full text of the article is available online at http://courses.washington.edu/eh451/articles/Todd_2009_food%20processing.pdf

25.  Wheeler, C, et al., “An Outbreak of Hepatitis A Associated with Green Onions,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, 890-897 (2005). Full text of article available at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa050855

26.  Willner, IR, et al., “Serious Hepatitis A: An Analysis of Patients Hospitalized During an Urban Epidemic in the United States,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 128, No. 2, pp. 111-114 (Jan. 15, 1998). Full text of the article is available at http://www.annals.org/content/128/2/111.full.pdf+html

Recent Outbreaks

New Hawaii Sea Hepatitis A Outbreak New York City New Hawaii Sea Restaurant Hepatitis A Outbreak

Hepatitis A outbreak linked to New Hawaii Sea Restaurant… Continued

Frozen berries sold at Costco linked to hepatitis A outbreak Townsend Farms organic frozen berries hepatitis A outbreak

A hepatitis A outbreak has been linked to frozen organic berries sold at Costco and Harris Teeter stores… Continued

Consumer Resources

Hepatitis Consumer Resources… Continued

More Outbreaks